4D Radiotherapy

4D radiotherapy takes into account tumour volume and regions at risk in three dimensions and changes with time (4th dimension). Image acquisition during initial planning imaging using CT/MR/PET accounting for time over periods of motion along with eventual treatment sessions (image guided radiotherapy, IGRT) may help to reduce uncertainties about changes in tumour geometry. Adaptive therapy allows the treatment set-up and dose delivered to be changed as necessary during a course of treatment.

Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is likely to be used in conjunction with 4D adaptive radiotherapy and may use techniques such as gating to ensure accurate targeting.

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